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您的位置: 山东技校网 >> 菁菁校园 >> 新鲜出炉!2019春季高考英语试题集锦以及备考攻略!

新鲜出炉!2019春季高考英语试题集锦以及备考攻略!

                    浏览[9793]次 [2019-1-11]

 



Part 1  听力


1. W: This table is reserved for you, sir.

M: It looks like a nice table, but it's too close to the kitchen door.

Q: Where does the conversation most probably take place?

2. M: I saw you on TV yesterday. You were ever so good. You didn't look nervous.

W: To be frank. When it was my turn to speak, I really had my heart in my mouth.

Q: What does the woman mean?

3. M: Shall we go and try that snack bar around the corner?

W: I can't eat anything. My head aches.

Q: What can we learn about the woman?

4. W: A single room is fifty pounds per night, and a double room sixty pounds per night. Stay two nights and you'll get another for free.

M: A single room for three nights, please.

Q: How much should the man pay for his room?

5. W: How did you do in the writing contest?

M: If only I had paid more attention to spelling.

Q: What can we learn about the man?

6. M: Hey, Joan, what's up?

W: Nothing much. It's my son! It doesn't seem easy for him to get used to the new school.

Q: How does Joan most probably feel about her son?

7. M: Have you heard from Mary lately? It's said she is not working as a fitness coach.

W: I got an email from her last week. She has been working at a school since she left our firm.

Q: Who are the two speakers talking about?

8. W: How did the lecture go?

M: Oh, you should have seen those young people. Thirsty for knowledge, drinking in my wisdom. (生活大爆炸台词S04E14)

Q: What does the man mean?

9. M: Look at the menu. Everything looks great, but that's too expensive.

W: Have anything you like? Tom said it's on our boss.

Q: Who will pay the bill?

10. W: David, I got you a present, a solar powered calculator.

M: I don't need a calculator, Mom. I am one.

Q: What does David imply?


Section B

Questions 11 through 13 are based on the following passage.

The calm waters of Rose Bay in Sydney are disturbed only when a sea plane comes into land and take off again. In some way, Rose Bay has witnessed the surprising history of flying boats, type of early sea plane. On fifth of July, 1938, an empire class flying boat departed from here, Australia's first international airport. It was heading for England and mark the start of the golden age of flying boats. Over ten days, with thirty stops along the route, passengers enjoyed a first-class service, including breakfasts of fruit, steak, juice and wine.

But the flight didn't come cheap. Tickets were far beyond the reach of most Australians at a price that was equivalent to an annual salary. The service was suspended in 1942 as war took hold, and the planes were officially used by the air force. By the time normal life started again after the war, land-based aircraft had developed rapidly, and flying boats were looking increasingly out of date. However, Sydney and its vast waters remained well placed to exploit their resources, and so began a new age for the flying boats.


Questions:

11. When did the golden age of flying boats start?

12. Why was the service of empire class flying boats stopped in the early 1940s?

13. What is the speaker mainly talking about?


Questions 14 through 16 are based on the following passage.

According to some psychologists, intelligence is the ability to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to change one's environment. Skills like learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving enhance these abilities. Therefore, certain habits may be evidence you've got these skills. For example, it is commonly thought that those who are intelligent are organized and have everything in their work space arranged neatly. But that's not the case.

In an experiment from the University of Minnesota, people in a messy setting came up with more creative ideas than those in a neat space. Kathleen Watts, study author says disorderly environments seem to inspire breaking free of tradition, which can produce fresh idea. Orderly environments, in contrast, encourage following traditions and playing it safe. But according to Jonathan White, a research scientist at Duke University, creativity is one of the qualities that smarter people tend to possess, and it may actually lead to messiness. He says it's not messiness that helps creativity, but creativity which may create messiness. Such people tend to get lost in thought while focusing on a problem or issue. And cleanliness becomes of less importance than focusing on the problem at hand.


Questions:

14. According to the passage, what are intelligent people like in most people's eyes?

15. According to Jonathan White from Duke University, Which of the following statements is true?

16. What is the passage mainly about?


Questions 17 through 20 are based on the following conversation.

W: James, have you read about the new research into the human brain?

M: Not yet. What does it say?

W: It says men are better at some things like map reading and finding direction, while women are better at other things, like remembering words and faces.

M: Interesting! Now I understand why I'm the one in my family who does all the map reading.

W: The research was done by a team from the University of Pennsylvania. They looked at the brains of nearly one thousand men and women and found they are wired differently.

M: Wired differently? You mean “connected in different ways”?

W: Right! In males, the stronger connections run within each half of the brain. In women, the stronger connections are between the two sides of the brain.

M: I see.

W: The difference might explain why men are better at learning and performing a single task, like reading maps or cycling. But women are often better at doing several things at the same time. They can also concentrate on a task for longer.

M: Now, I can understand why I cannot do several things together.

W: But not everyone agrees. A professor from the University of Oxford said the connections inside the brain are not permanently fixed, and the brain is very complex. Without sufficient data, you can't jump to any general conclusions.

M: I guess the professor is right.

(Now, listen again.)


Questions:

17: What is the conversation mainly about?

18: Compared with women's brains, what does the new research find out about men's brains?

19: According to the new research, which of the following are women better at?

20: What does the professor from the University of Oxford think of the new research findings?




点评




短对话相对来说比较简单。内容场景涉及餐厅、酒店等常考场景;对话主题也都是日常校园和生活中常讨论到的话题。从出题角度来看,在常见的6类题型中,本次听力考到了逻辑关系类、否定和肯定类、条件类、请求建议类和推测内涵类五类题。但是考生除了要熟悉这些题型,更重要的是要注重平时常见的地道表达。比如“have my heart in my mouth”就是在表达“nervous”的意思。而“It’s on our boss”的意思是“由老板请客”(口语中我们经常会说出“It’s on me.”来表示“由我来请客”)。同时,考生也可以借助听力中的一些语法知识,更好的理解文本。比如,第五题中的虚拟语气“If only I had paid more attention to spelling”可推出真实情况是男士没有注意拼写问题,进而判断写作比赛表现不好。再如第十题的“I  don't need a calculator, mom, I am one”,one在这里是代词, 指代calculator,即男士说他就是个计算器,言外之意是他擅长计算。


篇章的第一篇选择了一篇说明文,介绍了飞艇历史。考查了细节听辨(时间和原因)及主旨概括。题目的难度较低,基本上抓住关键词“On 5th July, 1938”和“ war”基本上就能选择正确了。


篇章的第二篇难度有所上升,开头先分析了心理学家对intelligence(智力)的定义,以及大多数人认为智力就是能保证井然有序,但接下来笔锋一转,引出观点,事实不是如此。考生要能把握住“But that’s not the case”。而之后篇章提到的Kathleen 和 Jonathan 的结论也不一致。因此需要考生在做听力笔记时对应精确,听问题时听清楚问的是谁的观点。


长对话内容涉及关于人脑的新研究,研究关于男女大脑构造的不同之处,并有可能解释为什么男女擅长的领域不同的问题。对于长对话题型来讲,讨论新科技,难度还是比较大的,不过关于男女大脑构造不同的文章比较多,可能有的同学在做阅读训练时就有读过类似的观点,因此内容上不算新颖。

    

总之,考生要想提高听力的准确率。不仅要抓住“听”的输入,也要结合地道口达、语法和背景知识,综合地提高自身的英语能力。


备考攻略




如何提高英语听力?——推荐“跟读”

    跟读是一种很经典的听说练习方法,它是指用一种语言接近同步地重复目标语言中的话,在这个过程中我们要模仿材料中说话者的语气,努力保持同样的语调、节奏和语速。跟读也是一个耳朵、大脑和嘴巴协调处理信息的过程,它对于提升听力和口语水平都有很大帮助。具体来讲,跟读有以下几个好处:提升听力理解水平(提升短时记忆时间以及记忆容量,从而提升听力理解水平)、提升语音语调(掌握重读、连读、弱读、不完全爆破以及升降调,准确地听音辨词识义)、提升听力词汇量(纠正原先的错误发音,提升听力词汇量)、提升遣词造句能力(内化材料中实用的单词、短语以及句型)。

     跟读是一个有效提高听说水平的方法,但做好跟读并不只是随便找一段材料开始跟读那么简单,材料的选取也很关键。刚开始跟读时可以选一些语速较慢且自己感兴趣的材料,后面适应后可以慢慢过渡到难度高一点的材料。在这里推荐比较适合入门的材料:新概念英语系列和美国总统等名人演讲。

    重点推荐昂立外语新概念2和新概念3和昂立外语高中听说课程,前两册的文章音频语速较慢,知识点密集,在跟读过程中能学到不少东西。后者是专门针对突破高考英语的听力与口试,基础与突破双管齐下。


Tips: 

    在跟读的过程中发现有听不懂的地方,可以在一段材料播放结束后仔细阅读原文,找出听不懂的地方做标记,并弄清楚意思不确定的词或句子。接下来在不看材料的基础上继续进行第二次第三次跟读,直至能够以正确的语音语调跟读所听到的所有内容。





Part2语法填空题与词汇题


十一选十 (又称小猫钓鱼)

源自于 《纽约时报》

文章主要考核了以下十一个词:

A. repetitive  B. continually  C. alertsD. pattern  E. locate  F. mentalG. challenge  H. network  I. evolvingJ. reversely  K. literac

    

    Bill Drayton invented the term "social entrepreneur" and founded Ashoka, the organization that supports 3,500 of them in 93 countries. He's a legend in the nonprofit world, so I went to him this week to see if he could offer some clarity and hope in discouraging times. He did not disappoint.

    Drayton believes we're in the middle of a necessary but painful historical transition. For millenniums most people's lives had a certain pattern. You went to school to learn a trade or a skill一baking, farming or accounting. Then you could go into the work force and make a good living repeating the same skill over the course of your career.

    But these days machines can do pretty much anything that's repetitive. The new world requires a different sort of person. Drayton calls this new sort of person a changemaker.

Changemakers are people who can see the patterns around them, identify the problems in any situation, figure out ways to solve the problem, organize fluid teams, lead collective action and then continually adapt as situations change.

    For example, Ashoka fellow Andrés Gallardo is a Mexican who lived in a high crime neighborhood. He created an app, called Haus, that allows people to network with their neighbors. The app has a panic button that alerts everybody in the neighborhood when a crime is happening. It allows neighbors to organize, chat, share crime statistics and work together.

    To form and lead this community of communities, Gallardo had to possess what Drayton calls “cognitive empathy-based living for the good of all." Cognitive empathy is the ability to perceive how people are feeling in evolving circumstances. “For the good of all” is the capacity to build teams.It doesn' t matter if you are working in the cafeteria or the inspection line of a plant, companies will now only hire people who can    locate problems and organize responses.

    Millions of people already live with this mind-set. But a lot of people still inhabit the world of following rules and repetitive skills. They hear society telling them :“ We don' t need you. We don' t need your kids, either." Of course, those people go into reactionary mode and strike back.

    In an earlier era, he says, society realized it needed universal literacy. Today, schools have to develop the curriculums and assessments to make the changemaking mentality universal. They have to understand this is their criteria for success.

    Ashoka has studied social movements to find out how this kind of mental shift can be promoted. It turns out that successful movements take similar steps.




点评与备考攻略



A. repetitive

adj. 重复性的

词汇难度不大,注意词性。考察点在于词汇的含义。

B. continually

adv. 不断地

词汇难度不大,注意词性。可以根据词性以及含义确定所填位置。

C. alerts

v. 使…警觉

可能会有部分学生对于这个词不熟悉。考察点依旧是词汇的含义,不过可以通过词性判断适当做排除。

D. pattern

n. 模式

学生可能掌握本词的“图案”一意,但考察的是另一个含义,学生可以通过上下文语境进行词义联想。

E. locate

v. 定位;本题考察的是词汇的抽象用法。在文中“locate”并不指地理位置上的定位,而是指精准地找到问题。

F. mental

adj. 脑力的;上文有提到“mind-set”、“mentality universal”等,所以所填位置想表达的是思想上的一种转变(mental shift)。

G. challenge

n. 挑战;本词难度不大,学生应该掌握。

H. network

v. 建立人际关系网;本词难度不大,不过学生要注意它做动词的用法以及含义。不过这点可以适当联想获得。

I. evolving

v. 逐步发展;本题考察含义以及语法,学生可以从这个单词的原形入手了解词义,再根据所填空前的“in”确认正确的语法形式。

J. reversely

adv. 相反地;可能有部分学生对本词不熟悉,导致和选项中其它副词相混淆。

K. literacy

n. 识字;部分学生可能对本词不熟悉,考点考察词义。

 

文章评析:

本文选自《纽约时报》,对于学生有一定的难度。主要讲了新时代所需要的人才是能够脱离机械重复性劳动的人才,是能够从中洞察问题并能够团队协作解决问题适应时代变化的人才。文中不乏一些难词,但部分词汇在文中都有很好地解释,学生要擅于把握文章的结构以及信息关系。考题难度尚可,学生可以根据词性判断、所掌握的词汇以及上下文语境等线索选出正确答案。





Part  3  阅读题 



完形填空




源自于《英国卫报》(The Guardian)

    More people are travelling than ever before, and lower barriers to entry and falling costs means they are doing so for shorter periods.

    The rise of “city breaks” - 48-hour bursts of foreign cultures, easier on the pocket and annual leave balance has increased tourist numbers, but not their geographic spread. The same attractions have been used to market cities such as Paris, Barcelona and Venice for decades, and visitors use the same infrastructure as residents to reach them. “Too many people do the same thing at the exact same time," says Font. “For locals, the city no longer belongs to them."

    This starts with marketing, says Font, who notes that Amsterdam has started advising visitors to seek accommodation outside of the city centre on its official website. “That takes some balls, really, to do that. But only so many people will look at the website, and it means they can say to their residents they 're doing all they can to ease congestion."

    But it also proposes a better way, it is calling  “detourism”: sustainable travel tips and alternative it ineraries for exploring an authentic Venice, off the paths beaten by the 28 million visitors who flock there each year.

    A greater variety of guidance for prospective visitors 一 ideas for what to do in off-peak seasons, for example, or outside of the city centre 一 can have the effect of diverting them from already saturated landmarks, or discouraging short breaks away in the first place. Longer stays ease the pressure, says Font. “If you go to Paris for two days, you're going to go to the Eiffel Tower. If you go for two weeks, you're not going to go to the Eiffel tower 14 times."

    Similarly, repeat visitors have a better sense of the culture. “We should be asking how do we get tourists to come back, not how to get them to come for the first time. If they're coming for the fifth time, it is much easier to integrate their behaviour with ours.”

    Local governments can foster this sustainable activity by giving preference to responsible operators and even high-paying consumers. Font says cities could stand to be more selective about the tourists they try to attract when the current metric for marketing success is how many there are, and how far they've come. “You're thinking, 'yeah, but at what cost……'"

    He points to unpublished data from the Barcelona Tourist Board that prioritizes Japanese tourists for spending an average of 40 Eruos more per day than French tourists 一a comparison that fails to take into account their bigger carbon footprint. French tourists are also more likely to be repeat visitors that come at off-peak times, buy local produce, and spread out to less crowded parts of the city all productive steps towards more sustainable tourism, and more peaceful relations with residents.


    More people are travelling than ever before, and lower barriers to entry and falling costs means they are doing so for shorter periods.

 

shorter:重要考上下文的理解,下文48-hour bursts,因此当今人们旅行时间变短。

 

The rise of “city breaks' - 48-hour bursts of foreign cultures, easier on the pocket and annual leave balance has increased tourist numbers, but not their geographic spread. The same attractions have been used to market cities such as Paris, Barcelona and Venice for decades, and visitors use the same infrastructure as residents to reach them. “Too many people do the same thing at the exact same time," says Font. “For locals, the city no longer belongs to them."

 

geographic:地理的,地理学的。字面意思“并没有扩大分布到其它地域”,此处可以理解为旅客的增加并没有被稀释到其他没那么热门的地区。

Infrastructure:基础设施,公共建设

locals:当地人,=local people

 

This starts with marketing, says Font, who notes that Amsterdam has started advising visitors to seek accommodation outside of the city centre on its official website. “That takes some balls, really, to do that. But only so many people will look at the website, and it means they can say to their residents they 're doing all they can to ease congestion."

 

accommodation:住处,膳宿

congestion:拥堵,拥塞

 

But it also proposes a better way, it is calling  “detourism”: sustainable travel tips and alternative it ineraries for exploring an authentic Venice, off the paths beaten by the 28 million visitors who flock there each year.

 

detourism:这是一个合成词,detour+tourism,原本detour是绕道,便道,和“旅游”一词合并,意为绕道旅游,错峰旅游。

 

A greater variety of guidance for prospective visitors 一 ideas for what to do in off-peak seasons, for example, or outside of the city centre 一 can have the effect of diverting them from already saturated landmarks, or discouraging short breaks away in the first place. Longer stays ease the pressure, says Font. “If you go to Paris for two days, you're going to go to the Eiffel Tower. If you go for two weeks, you're not going to go to the Eiffel tower 14 times."

 

guidance:指导,引导。在非高峰季节做什么,例如,转移到城市中心以外的地区旅游。

discouraging:使人沮丧的,令人气馁的。以上措施对缓解饱和(saturated)有一定作用,人们开始逗留长一点。

ease:缓解。

 

    

Similarly, repeat visitors have a better sense of the culture. “We should be asking how do we get tourists to come back, not how to get them to come for the first time. If they're coming for the fifth time, it is much easier to integrate their behaviour with ours.'

 

culture:文化,文明,修养

for the first time:营销的重点应该是留住回头客,而不是靠一味赢得新旅客(还记得昂立外语的高考阅读六选四那本书吗?我们做过一篇六选四,在Chapter7 Text2,讲加拿大的客服行业面临越来越多的投诉,商家的重点应该放在留住顾客而不是赢得顾客上,有异曲同工之妙。)

 

Local governments can foster this sustainable activity by giving preference to responsible operators and even high-paying consumers. Font says cities could stand to be more selective about the tourists they try to attract when the current metric for marketing success is how many there are, and how far they've come. “You're thinking, 'yeah, but at what cost……'"


He points to unpublished data from the Barcelona Tourist Board that prioritizes Japanese tourists for spending an average of 40 Eruos more per day than French tourists 一a comparison that fails to take into account their bigger carbon footprint. French tourists are also more likely to be repeat visitors that come at off-peak times, buy local produce, and spread out to less crowded parts of the city all productive steps towards more sustainable tourism, and more peaceful relations with residents.

 

prioritize:优先考虑

spread out:展开,铺开。法国游客也更有可能成为非高峰时段的回头客,他们会购买当地农产品,然后分散到城市中不那么拥挤的地方。采取各种富有成效的措施,发展更可持续的旅游业,与居民建立更和平的关系。

sustainable:可持续的





点评与备考攻略





本文围绕”city breaks” 城市假期的兴起铺开论述,旨在引出”detourism” ——“错峰旅游”的经济意义和可持续发展意义:拉动旅行目的地的收入增长和推动当地旅游业的可持续发展。 明线暗线同时铺开,合二归一,立意甚高。文中客观介绍了因为进入门槛的降低、旅游成本的下降、48小时的外国文化大爆发、收入增加和年假平衡,越来越多的消费者选择出国旅游。但是如果所有人都同时涌向同一个地方,那么无论对于旅行体验的主体还是旅行目的地来说,是不是都不均匀呢?因此指出,城市需要生态休息,在市场营销战略中,“回头客”的经营模式的对于旅游业的发展颇为重要,希望访客可以与居民建立更和平的关系。

原文来自英国《卫报》,选自去年 2017年8月刊登的一篇文章 题为Tourism kills neighborhood(旅游扼杀了邻里),真题有所改动。不难发现目前上海的大趋势越来越向外看原文倾斜,可以说出题选择外刊并进行改编已经八九不离十了,聚焦国际视野、引领专业方向。值得一提的是, 很多难词80%都在高考词汇默写册出现过,大部分也是考纲要求。平时一直上课的同学应该跟着老师默写过好几轮了。  


阅读 c 篇 




 Nuclear power looks to shrink its way to success

   

Everything about nuclear energy seems terrifically big: the cost, construction and decommissioning — and the fears of something going badly wrong.

   

The future, however, may well be much smaller. Dozens of companies are working on a new generation of reactors that, they promise, can deliver nuclear power at lower cost and reduced risk.

    

These small-scale plants will on average generate between 50MW and 300MW of power compared with the 1,000MW-plus from a conventional reactor. They will draw on modular manufacturing techniques that will reduce construction risk, which has plagued larger-scale projects.

    

Supporters believe these advanced modular reactors (AMRs) — most of which will not be commercial until the 2030s — are critical if atomic power is to compete against the rapidly falling costs of solar and wind.

    

“The physics hasn’t changed. It’s about much cleverer design that offers much-needed flexibility in terms of operation,” said Tim Stone, long-term industry adviser and chairman of Nuclear Risk Insurers, which insures nuclear sites in the UK.

   

 Since the Fukushima meltdown in Japan in 2011, safety fears have threatened nuclear power. But the biggest obstacle today is economic. In western Europe, just three plants are under construction: in the UK at Hinkley Point C in Somerset; at Flamanville in France; and at Olkiluoto in Finland. All involve the European Pressurized Reactor technology of EDF that will be used at Hinkley Point. All are running years late and over budget. In the US, the first two nuclear projects under way for the past 30 years are also blowing through cost estimates.

    

The UK, which opened the world’s first commercial nuclear reactor in 1956, is one of the few western nations committed to renewing its ageing fleet to ensure energy security and meet tough carbon reduction targets. It is seen as a proving ground, by many in the industry, of nuclear power’s ability to restore confidence.

    

However, the country’s agreement with EDF to build two units at Hinkley Point — which together will generate 3.2GW of electricity — has come under severe criticism over its cost. The government is looking at different funding models but said it still sees nuclear power as vital to the country’s future energy mix. Small reactors, it believes, have the potential to generate much-needed power from the 2030s.

A nuclear sector deal, unveiled last month, promised up to £56m in funding for research and development into AMRs and attracted interest of start-ups from around the world. The government hopes the funding will give the UK a lead in the global race to develop these technologies, helping to provide energy security while also creating a multibillion-dollar export market for British engineering companies.

    

“There is a big global market for small reactors. They can be deployed in more and different locations to large reactors,” said Fiona Reilly, chair of the expert finance working group set up by the UK government.

    

“The key differences with large reactors are how these smaller reactors are built — a large proportion of factory build and therefore less construction risk, and significantly smaller capital costs. Both these factors should help to attract private finance,” added Ms Reilly.

    

Eight companies attended a meeting in Birmingham last week after securing funding from the UK government as part of its initiative. Among them was U-Battery, a UK-based consortium that includes Urenco, the uranium enrichment group.

    

“Capital cost is important in nuclear,” said Steve Threlfall, general manager of U-Battery, which estimates one of its individual reactors would cost about £40m once multiple units have been built. The cost to build the first unit would be about £76m.

   

 Other aspiring builders, include Britain’s Moltex Energy and Tokamak Energy, Sweden’s LeadCold and the US Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), as well as a consortium involving China’s Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology.

    

They all offer a range of different technologies for numerous applications, from providing just electricity to a combination of heat and power. Some could be used to generate hydrogen. What makes them attractive is their flexibility as they can be deployed in different scenarios, helping to power a big industrial site or providing heat and power to a remote location that is not able to access a central transmission grid. Others can be built in clusters and in essence operate more like a conventional reactor.

    

Small nuclear reactors are not brand new. They are on board nuclear submarines while Russia has nuclear-operated icebreakers in the Arctic. National laboratories have also been researching the technology for decades, but nothing is yet in commercial operation at any scale.

    

The first three advanced modular reactors are expected to start commercial operations in China, Russia and Argentina by 2020, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.


Future generation reactors: Two contenders

 Tokamak Energy’s ST40

    

 The Oxford-based company hopes to revolutionise power generation through cracking nuclear fusion. The main challenge it faces is that so far nuclear fusion has taken more energy than it has produced. It has built three prototypes so far. The aim is to produce modules that will generate 150-200MW of electricity

Moltex Energy’s SSR-W

   

 The privately held British company backed by wealthy individuals is focused on molten salt reactors. Co-founder Ian Scott said they can generate heat of 600 degrees that is high enough for cheap energy storage in “solar salt”, creating in essence a battery for release when needed and to back up wind and solar power.

 

Private and state-owned companies are increasingly vying for a role. In the US, notable names include TerraPower, partly founded by Bill Gates, and NuScale in Oregon, which is also looking to expand into the UK market. NuScale’s reactor — based on a light water reactor and seen as being closer to commercialisation — is under review for approval by US regulators. Its technology involves 50MW “power modules”, up to 12 of which could be combined to create a 600MW plant.

   

 Canada, in particular, is seen as a potentially lucrative market by private developers of the technology. Reactors could help replace coal plants, provide local power for resource extraction such as in oil recovery or serve remote communities that are not connected to the grid.

   

 Moltex Energy recently signed a deal with a Canadian-government owned utility to work towards building a 300MW commercial demonstration version of its stable salt reactor.

    

Ian Scott, co-founder of Moltex, said the company still believed the UK market was attractive “if you get the economics right”. Not only does the country have a need for a large amount of energy but it also benefits from a good regulator, good levels of nuclear expertise and a “generally pro-nuclear population”, he said.


Yet even the smaller reactors face a cost challenge. The higher cost to build the first of a kind reactor is regarded as a key challenge for the nascent industry, coupled with getting the technologies licensed. An independent report by Atkins and EY, the consultancy, and commissioned by the UK government two years ago, found that first of a kind costs for small modular reactors would be higher relative to large nuclear reactors.

     

But this does not mean the big dream for small nuclear is over, said Dougald Middleton, partner at EY. “The first customer would not carry all of the product development costs for a car or a commercial jet.”Chinese partner for DBD bid.

    

A Chinese nuclear institute has emerged as one of the winners of the UK government’s recent competition for advanced modular reactors, the Financial Times can reveal.

    

The Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), a research department based at Tsinghua University, is the prime sub-contractor on the contract. It has partnered with a UK-based engineering advisory group, DBD, which is spearheading the bid but the Chinese role was not disclosed in the government release on the deal. China already holds a stake in the Hinkley Point nuclear plant but ministers have been sensitive to the country having a controlling stake in projects.

   

The partnership, said David Cuming, DBD’s managing director of emerging markets, was “meant to be beneficial to both countries”. China, he added, “has a nuclear industry that is highly developed”.

    

The consortium will study the application of a Chinese design that uses pebble bed technology. These reactors are fuelled by circulating fuel pebbles that produce high-temperature heat that can be used for a wide range of applications. The technology enables the reactors to gradually cool down without any intervention if an accident happens.


INET started building its first experimental reactor in 1995 as one of China’s key national sponsored programmes. In 2006, Tsinghua University co-invested Rmb3bn with Huaneng and China Nuclear Power, two Chinese state-owned energy companies, to build a reactor with a capacity of 221MW of electricity in the Shandong province.




点评与备考攻略



本文选自英国金融时报(Financial Times),题材较为传统,能源问题一直都是热点,特别是目前全球经济发展相关的能源问题,更是热点,所以考生在平时的学习过程中还是要注重对外刊的阅读,特别是英美国家的报刊杂志,关于经济发展,能源开发,金融政策等。本文相对来说难度一般,生词不多,学生读懂文章大意并不困难,所以对于阅读的主旨大意题,应该失分不多;可能对于细节题需要特别注意,比如:文中第一部分,small-scale plants的优势有哪些方面;第二部分,两个contender之间特点的对比;第三部分,中国核能发展优势的具体体现等等。

    

第一个部分为引入和总述,介绍了目前世界核能的发展现状以及前景,特别强调了它的优点长处以及短处危机等。要想解决大型核电站带来的费用高昂以及核泄漏等劣势,本文主要是介绍了未来核能发展的趋势——small-scale plants以及advanced modular reactors (AMRs)这种新一代核能反应堆的开发和应用。紧接着作者以目前英国该项技术的发展现状谈论了开发这种AMR所涉及的一系列问题,特别强调了经济和财力支持以及全球核能市场的问题。在第一部分的最后,作者强调,目前AMR技术核能反应堆将在2020年投入经济使用的国家为俄罗斯,中国,阿根廷。

    

第二部分主要介绍了未来两家具有竞争力的AMR技术组织:Tokamak Energy’s ST40以及Moltex Energy’s SSR-W,并分别介绍了各自的特点和发展现状。

    

第三部分主要介绍了中国目前核能的发展,针对AMRs技术,中国赢得了DBD bid并和英国成立合作关系,在这项合作计划中,中国利用其本身已经具有的核能发展优势进行的一系列核能发展项目。




Part  4   summary writing


选自 美国环保署网站文章

Where are the bees?

    

Bees are essential to the production of food we eat. Bees make honey, but they also pollinate large areas of crops, such as strawberries, apples and onions. About a third of the food we eat is a result of pollination of the bees. Unfortunately, bees have been disappearing at an alarming rate.

    

In 2006, bee keepers started reporting about something called Colony Collapse Disaster(CCD). The main sign of CCD is the loss of adult honey bees from a hive. In October of 2006, some beekeepers reported that they had lost between 30 and 90 percent of their hives.

    

There were many theories for the disappearance of the bees. But the most convincing one has to do with pesticides and lifestyles of bees today. Nowadays, beekeeper get most of their income not from producing honey but from renting bees to pollinate plants. This means that the life of the typical bee now consists of traveling all around the country to pollinate crops as the seasons change. That means a lot of traveling on trucks, which is very stressful to bees. It is not unusual for up to 30% of the hive to die during transport due to stress. In addition, bees that spend most of their time locked up on trucks are not exposed to what they usually live on. Instead, they live on a sweet liquid from corn, usually polluted with pesticides.

   

 The exact reason for the disappearance of bees is not sure, but losing bees is very costly to the economy. The bee pollination services are worth over $8 billion a year.

    

With no bees, pollination will have to be done by hand, which would have effects on the quality of food and increased food prices. We hear a lot about big environmental disasters almost every day. But one of the biggest may just be the loss of that tiny flying insect.


点评与备考攻略



本文是一篇讲述蜜蜂数量减少的说明文。蜜蜂在生物世界中起着重要作用,但是由于农药的滥用、蜂农千里迢迢租用蜜蜂用于授粉等原因,蜜蜂正在大批死亡。本文对蜜蜂数量大幅减少的原因进行了分析。

 

提高SW攻略:

    

何谓概要写作?顾名思义,是一个篇章的简短形式,或者说,是压缩版的篇章。为什么要考概要写作?是为了检验你对篇章的理解能力—首先,你得读懂文章。如果整个文章你都不知所云,写出来的summary writing(以下缩写为SW)只能说是你创作的一篇小作文。再者,SW考查同学们提取关键信息的能力—如果把次要信息都放了进去,有超过字数限制(60字,多一个都不行)的潜在危险,还说明你还是没有把握住文章的主要内容,那就再去读。另外一个关键得分点,也是评分标准里要求的,要客观总结作者观点,不要掺杂自己的看法。笔者以往数次遇到这样的同学—英语功底很扎实,作文写的也不错,一到SW就发怵,因为你看他(她)的SW,就像是在看一篇全新的文章—因为加了太多他自己的评价,可是事实上,原文作者也很冤枉,他真的没有那个意思啊!

    

这样就会造成一个尴尬的极端—有同学会想:不加自己的想法可以啊,保险点,我用原文中的词总没错了吧?不好意思,评分标准里也说了,用你自己的语言总结,如果发现连续的三四个词或以上都是出自原文,是要扣分的!另外,避免在文章中涵盖具体动作或是事件的详细信息。60个字的字数限制,光总结全文大意都紧紧张张的,就不要加什么细节了吧!

    

从结构而言,SW又有点像论文,所以排篇布局时,也可以模仿论文的结构—介绍、主干、总结。通读全文之后,找到每一小段的中心句,为了避免重复原文,用paraphrase的方式(用英语解释英语)总结一下,然后把几个关键信息点按照逻辑连接起来,最后检查一下,自己通读一遍,体会一下跟原文作者想表达的观点是否一致。

    

想要写好SW,非一朝一夕之功,需要多练习才可以写好。这其中包涵了优秀的阅读理解能力、概括总结能力、写作能力,还有坚实的语法基础。愿同学们都能答好这一道题!



Part 5翻译





1.究竟是什么激发了小王学习电子工程的积极性?(motivate)

2.网上支付方便了用户,但是牺牲了他们的隐私。(at the cost of)

3.让我父母非常满意的是,从这个公寓的餐厅可以看见街对面的世纪公园,从起居室也可以。(so)

4.博物馆疏于管理,展品积灰,门庭冷清,急需改善。(whose)

 

参考译文:

1.What is it that motivates Xiao Wang to learn electronic engineering?

2.Though online payment makes it convenient to users, it’s at the cost of sacrificing their privacy.

3.What makes my parents very satisfied is that the dining room of this flat can overlook the Century Park across the street, so can its living room.

4.  For lack of management/ Lacking management, the museum whose exhibits are covered with dust has been rarely visited, which is in urgent need of improvemen



点评与备考攻略





对于我们上海考生来说, 成语和短语翻译的考查并不算新鲜,早在2005年的秋考已经开始出现成语或俗语:

2005年:刮目相看。

2006年:心烦意乱

2008年:一无所知

2012年:翘首以盼

2013年:耳熟能详。

    

在最近几年各区的模考题中更是“屡见不鲜”。想必考过或做过17年徐汇区二模的同学们对”会当凌绝顶,一览众山小“还”心有戚戚“?今天小编就为同学们编了一些在历年秋考及模考中出现的成语或四字短语,以供参考。

疏于管理,展品积灰,门厅清冷: --2019春考

齐心协力: work together --2018徐汇

蓬勃发展:the booming of sth  --2018崇明

效果显著, 立竿见影:sth. has distinct and immediate effect  --2018秋考

唾手可得:sth. is at hand/available  --2017长宁

因人而异:vary from person to person  --2017虹口

熟视无睹:turn a blind eye to sth.  --2017黄浦

按部就班:of one’s own schedule/ step by step/ sth. be in order  --2017秋考

坚守岗位,严格执法:stick to the post and carry out the law strictly  --2016闵行   

大相径庭:be big differences between  --2016黄浦

置若罔闻:turn a deaf ear to sth.  --2016黄浦

欣喜万分:sb. be full of/ filled with joy  --2016秋考

精心准备:sth. be carefully prepared  --2015秋考

遭遇不测:sth. terrible might happen  --2014秋考

耳熟能详:be fauliar to sb./sth.  --2013秋考

翘首以盼:look forward to sth./doing sth.  --2012秋考

一无所知:be ignorant of  -- 2008秋考

心烦意乱:make sb. setup  --2006秋考

刮目相看:look at sb. differently/with new eyes.  --2005秋考

 

从上面总结的词组同学们应该也看出来了,当我们把中文里高,大,上的成语或四字短语翻译成英文时,是把这个成语或四字背后的含义找到恰当的词,词组准确表达出来即可。

 

比如:会当凌绝顶,一览众山小。 --2017徐汇

字面含义:当人登上泰山的顶峰,俯瞰众山,而众山就会显得极为渺小。

When I stand on the top of Mount. Tai, the other mountains appear so small.

When reaching the top of Mount. Tai, I hold all mountains in a single glance.

这里如果不知道是泰山也没有关系,只需要表达出山顶即可。

 

压轴题2019年春考:博物馆疏于管理,展品积灰,门庭冷落,急需改善。(whose)

字面含义:博物馆因为管理不善,无人参观久而久之展品上都落满了灰尘。这种状况需要立即找出办法,提高管理水平。

或体主干:博物馆急需改善。

The museum is in urgent need of improvement.

分析其他成分:

a.疏于管理是主要原因。

as the poor management

b.展品积灰,门庭冷落是属于博物馆疏于管理的表象。

the museum whose exhibits are covered with dust

the museum has rarely been visited

合并同类项:the museum whose exhibits are covered with dust has rarely been visited

c.把各成分整合成完整的句子。

As the poor management, the museum whose exhibits are covered with dust has rarely been visited and therefore, it is in urgent need of improvement.





Part  6   作文



2019年春考作文:(根据学生回忆整理)

假如你是明启中学的李华,你的朋友李楠给你写了一封信,告诉你他要开发一个新的APP,用这个软件共享衣服,且可为共享者赚取一定收益,想要征集大家的看法。文章需要包含以下两点:

1.你是否愿意共享你的衣服

2.给出理由

(信的格式已给)

 

附上参考例文:

Dear Li Nan,


Delighted to learn that your admirable idea of developing a new application for sharing clothes that can also make profits for sharer, I am willing to share my own. From my perspective, it is undoubtedly a wisdom at the rational disposal of idle clothes.

   

To begin with, a numerous amount of money will be saved by sharing what we seldom, or even never put on. Overlooking the current society, we may clearly see that fashion takes a leading position. The pursuit of diversity in dressing drives us to consume more by purchasing fashionable clothes rather than keeping an unchanged and dull style. Thanks to the benefits of sharing clothes, not only will the spending be greatly cut down, but also it will satisfy different appetites for various demands. Not only that, profits we earn provide us with another free choice. Moreover, sharing clothes contributes to environment protection as well as resource preservation. Whether during the period of production or at the disposal of the remaining, toxic components or chemical ingredients, to some extent, have negative impacts on our surroundings. It is sharing clothes that prolongs the life cycle of clothes and avoids unnecessary waste as well. Thus, the edge of sharing clothes is by no means disappointing at this aspect.

    

In a word, though many factors still should be taken into consideration in advance before popularizing, I firmly believe that this creative idea will prevail in the near future. If permitted, I would like to be your first supporter.

 

Yours Sincerely,

Li Hua




点评与备考攻略



以17-19三年的高考英语作文作为例子,看看改革后的作文方面的考察有无变化呢。


2019年1月上海高考英语作文题目(学生回忆版)

假设你是明启中学的学生李华,你的朋友李楠给你写了一封信,告诉你他要开发一个新的APP,用这个软件共享衣服,且可为共享者赚取一定收益,想要征求大家的看法,文章需包括以下两点:

1、你是否愿意共享你的衣服;

2、给出理由。----现象观点


2018年6月上海高考英语作文题目(学生回忆版)

假设你是明启中学的高三学生卢平,学校英语报向高三学生进行征文,题目为my teachers,卢平也想投稿,具体要求:

1、请你将认识的老师进行分类;

2、具体描述每一类老师的特征。


2018年1月上海高考英语作文题目(学生回忆版)

1、假设你是明启中学的学生王磊,你校引进一个机器人担任餐厅服务员或者图书馆管理员,并在英语贴吧征求学生意见,你很感兴趣,决定回帖响应,你所写的内容应包括:

2、你认为机器人适合担任的一个岗位,二选一;

3、通过比较,阐述你的理由,可以从工作效率、服务范围等方面进行比较。


2017年6月上海高考英语作文题目(学生回忆版)

假设你是明启中学的学生王磊,你校学生会将组织一次徒步活动,并在校园网公布了如下方案,征求师生的意见,写一封邮件给活动组织者,内容必须包括:

你认为方案中需要改进的地方以及改进建议;

你的理由。


2017年1月上海高考英语作文题目(学生回忆版)

假设你是明启中学的学生王磊,你的好友李宏今年暑假将赴英国参加为期两个月的海外交流活动。如果选择主办方安排的住宿,他需要额外支付较高的费用。但是他也可以通过为当地社区养老院提供每月三十小时的义工服务,获得在养老院免费住宿的机会,李宏通过邮件向你征求意见,写一封回信,内容必须包括:

1、你对此事跌明确态度;

2、你的理由。


纵观这五次上海高考英语作文的命题,目测明启中学要火,再这样下去,明启中学的学生怕是全都要一一出现在高考英语作文中了。玩笑归玩笑,接下我们言归正传,好好说一说这五次的高考英语作文的命题方向,审题思路,提纲要求等等。


第一,命题方向,这五次的作文有一个共同点,题目都很贴近我们的现实生活,没有出现例如环境、教育这种大方向的命题,这样有利也有弊,好处就是学生比较容易下笔,不存在不会表达的偏僻词汇,不会无话可说,但是也有不好的,学生容易犯空口说话的错误,没有实质性的内容,文章只是泛泛而谈,其实这样的命题反而增加了难度,环境、教育等大方向的命题学生可以采取背诵一些明确的观点性内容充实自己的文章,而这种贴近生活又高于生活的命题比较棘手,难以从一众作文中出彩,所以这就要求学生平时还要多多注意一些词组短语的表达的搜集,这样至少可以在作文语言这一块有所优势,并且平时要多接触各种社会问题的讨论,从中吸收多种观点,扩充自己的视野范围和思考领域。值得一提的是今年的春考作文中仍然考到了共享经济的概念,本来以为自从共享单车这一热门话题之后,估计不太可能再考察共享经济的话题,没想到今年把共享单车换成了共享衣服,再一次考察共享经济,所以写作课上提到的共享经济的话题还是要注意,并且利用业余时间扩充这方面的话题深度和广度。


第二,审题思路,改革后的这五次作文除了18年6月的命题,其余四篇全部都是议论文的写作,18年6月以“my teachers”为例,说说你眼中的老师分类。其实上过高考读写课的同学应该不陌生这种话题,这就是我们写作课上第一章关于人和事中讨论到的类似话题。17年1月和18年1月的两篇都是对比类作文,从两个方向中选择一个来谈谈自己的看法这种话题也是写作课上重点讨论的内容,对比类的话题学生必须从中选择一个,不可以“和稀泥”,开篇就要挑明态度,接下来按照文章要求讨论理由或者建议等等;17年6月和19年1月偏向于现象观点类的作文,先给你一个现象类的东西,比如17年6月,给你一个徒步方案,19年1月给你一个新的发明,让你根据这个现象谈谈看法,谈谈这个徒步方案改进的地方,你对这个APP的看法。所以这五次的作文审题思路都没有太难,学生在看到题目的时候应该可以根据自己的所学,列出一个比较清晰的提纲要领,然后再下笔。我们课上的名言哲理、图表类作文这五次还有出现过,不知道秋考或者以后会不会转换方向,考察这些呢?


第三,提纲要求,不同的命题对于提纲的要求自然也不一样,而很多学生考英语的时候最容易发生的就是时间不够,从而导致作文没有足够的时间好好审题,好好列提纲,所以一方面对于学生的做题速度有所要求,另外还有就是对于各种命题的提纲要了然于胸,比如今年的这个话题要求谈谈你是否会愿意共享衣服,提纲参考:有明确的一个提纲,写作的时候就不会慌不择路,所以这五次的作文其实对于提纲的撰写都不是特别的有难度。


第四,语言表达,一篇好的作文必须要有完整丰富的内容,连贯顺畅的语言和清晰明了的结构,这三个缺一不可,并且相互牵扯,小编认为语言是这三个方面的基础,没有好的语言,就不会有丰富的内容,结构方面自然也不会有很高的分,而这五次的作文其实对于语言表达这块的要求是非常高的,17年1月讨论去英国参加交流活动住宿的两个方案,其中肯定会有学生因为词汇量不够无法正确地道的表达“养老院、义工、住宿”等相关概念,而17年6月的“徒步”估计也会难住一些学生,路线:从人民广场出发,途径南京路,抵达外滩(the Bund)后原路返回,应该也会有学生非常僵硬的表达,中式英语的痕迹会比较严重,还有对老师的分类,主体部分的句型运用不能太过于单一化。语言的重要可见一斑。


从这几个方面看来以后的高中生在写作方面面临的压力会更大,一方面要扩充自己的视野范围,增加自己的储备知识,熟悉各个领域的相关概念,不至于言之无物;另一方面语言方面的要求会越来越高,这也是符合上海高考英语改革的大方向要求,与国际接轨,让学生的英语更加符合该门语言的地道表达。

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